Company Act

What is Associated Company

What is Associated Company?

An associated company, also known as an associate company, refers to a business entity in which another company holds a significant portion of ownership, usually between 20% and 50%. This level of ownership is substantial enough to give the investing company influence over the associated company’s operations, but not total control.
Associated companies are typically recognized in financial accounting under the equity method, where the investing company records its investment as an asset and its share of the associated company’s profits or losses as income or expense, respectively. This method reflects the investing company’s proportional ownership interest in the associated company.
The relationship between the investing company and its associated company is crucial as it enables both entities to benefit from each other’s resources, expertise, and market presence. However, it’s essential to note that despite the significant ownership stake, the associated company operates as a separate legal entity, maintaining its own management and decision-making processes.
Overall, an associated company represents a strategic partnership or investment that allows businesses to expand their reach, diversify their portfolio, and leverage synergies while maintaining a degree of autonomy and independence.

Defination of Associated Company as per Company Act

Section 2(6)
Associate company‖, in relation to another company, means a company in which that other
company has a significant influence, but which is not a subsidiary company of the company having such
influence and includes a joint venture company.
Source – Company Act, 2013


An “associate company” denotes a business entity in which another company holds significant influence (typically 20-50% ownership), without complete control like a subsidiary. This influence allows participation in decision-making but maintains the associate’s autonomy. The term also encompasses joint ventures where companies collaborate on specific projects while retaining shared control. Associate companies offer a middle ground between full ownership and passive investment, facilitating strategic partnerships for mutual benefit while respecting the independence of the associate entity.


Central 1947 Holdings Pte. Ltd.
Ganhan Capital Consultants LLP
Radarss Angel Investors LLP
Artemis Advisors Private Limited
Kora Construction s Pvt. Ltd.

Features of Associated Company

Shared Control: Associated Companies involve shared control between entities, characterized by significant influence rather than outright ownership, enabling collaborative decision-making and strategic direction.

Equity Investment: Entities invest in each other’s equity, holding substantial stakes to align interests and foster joint decision-making, crucial for strategic alignment and long-term growth.

Financial Reporting: Rigorous financial reporting is essential, utilizing the equity method to accurately reflect investments and ensure transparency and compliance with accounting standards.

Strategic Alliances: Associated Companies form strategic alliances, leveraging combined resources, expertise, and market presence to capitalize on synergies and exploit growth opportunities effectively.

Separate Legal Entities: Maintaining distinct legal identities, Associated Companies ensure autonomy while facilitating collaboration and risk management, allowing for efficient operations and strategic maneuvering in the business landscape.

Advantages of Associated Company

Risk Sharing: Joint ownership mitigates financial risk by distributing it between entities, safeguarding against potential losses and enhancing stability for both parties.

Resource Access: Collaboration grants access to diverse resources like technology and expertise, empowering entities to leverage each other’s strengths and capabilities for mutual benefit and improved operational efficiency.

Market Expansion: Partnership facilitates entry into new markets, broadening the customer base and revenue streams for both entities, thereby fostering business growth and market diversification.

Cost Efficiency: Shared expenses on core activities such as research and development, marketing, and infrastructure result in cost savings, enhancing profitability and financial performance for associated companies.

Synergy Creation: Collaboration fosters synergy, where combined efforts yield greater outcomes than individual endeavors, enhancing competitiveness, innovation, and overall business success through shared knowledge, resources, and strategic alignment.

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What is Parent company

What is Parent company?

A parent company is a term used in corporate structure to describe a company that controls another company or companies through ownership of a significant portion of their voting stock. The parent company, also known as the holding company, typically holds a controlling interest in its subsidiaries, allowing it to influence their strategic decisions and operations. This control is exerted through the power to appoint the subsidiaries’ board of directors and make key business decisions. While the subsidiaries operate independently to a certain extent, they ultimately fall under the authority and ownership of the parent company. This arrangement enables the parent company to benefit from the profits and assets of its subsidiaries while maintaining separate legal entities for each. Parent companies often provide financial and managerial support to their subsidiaries, fostering synergies and facilitating growth across the entire corporate group.

How do Parent Company Work

Parent companies put to use authority over subsidiary companies by acquiring over 51% of their stock, thus securing majority control over their operations. This control empowers parent companies to modify the strategic direction and operational methodologies of subsidiaries or opt for a more hands-off managerial approach.

Parent companies predominantly come into existence through acquisitions, wherein they procure sufficient stock in smaller entities to attain majority voting rights. Such acquisitions are frequently driven by objectives to mitigate market competition, integrate new talent, and capitalize on the resources and innovations of the acquired entities.

Conversely, parent companies may initiate spinoff endeavors, establishing autonomous entities by issuing new shares in subsidiary companies to their stakeholders. Spinoffs are often pursued to divest underperforming segments or enhance the operational efficiency of subsidiaries.

Typically, parent companies consolidate the operations of their subsidiaries into a unified balance sheet. This consolidated financial statement serves as a fundamental tool for traders, aiding in their decision-making processes.

Example of Parent Company

  • Facebook
  • Alphabet

Features of Parent Company

  • Strategic Guidance: The parent company provides across-the-board direction and objectives for its subsidiaries, ensuring they align with the corporate vision and adapt to market trends effectively.
  • Financial Oversight: Managing financial activities across subsidiaries, including budgeting, investments, and resource allocation, the parent company optimizes profitability and resource utilization for sustained growth and success.
  • Governance Standards: Through robust governance policies, the parent company establishes frameworks for regulatory compliance, ethical conduct, and transparent accountability within its subsidiaries.
  • Risk Management: Identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks, the parent company safeguards the financial stability and reputation of the entire corporate group, ensuring resilience in the face of challenges.
  • Synergy Optimization: Encouraging collaboration and resource sharing among subsidiaries, the parent company fosters innovation, efficiency, and competitiveness across the organization, driving collective growth and value creation.

Advantages of Parent Company

  1. Diversification: Parent companies can diversify their investments across multiple subsidiaries, spreading risk and potentially increasing returns through exposure to various industries and markets.
  2. Economies of Scale: By centralizing resources and operations management, parent companies can achieve economies of scale, reducing costs and improving efficiency across their subsidiaries.
  3. Strategic Control: Parent companies have the ability to exert strategic control over their subsidiaries, guiding their direction and ensuring alignment with corporate objectives.
  4. Risk Management: With a diversified portfolio and centralized oversight, parent companies are better equipped to manage risks, mitigating potential threats to the overall stability of the organization.
  5. Synergy Creation: Parent companies can facilitate collaboration and synergy among subsidiaries, leveraging shared resources, knowledge, and expertise to drive innovation and competitive advantage.

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What Is Holding Company

What Is Holding Company?

A holding company is a corporate entity that doesn’t conduct operational activities itself but instead owns a controlling stake in other companies. Its main function is to possess shares of these subsidiaries, forming a corporate group. Subsidiaries can take various forms, such as corporations or limited liability companies. The holding company typically maintains control by owning a majority of the voting stock or appointing the subsidiaries’ board of directors.

Holding companies are commonly utilized for strategic purposes, including centralizing management and financial control over a group of companies, optimizing tax strategies, or safeguarding assets. They operate across diverse industries, ranging from finance and investments to manufacturing and technology. In essence, holding companies are vital in corporate organization, offering advantages such as risk management, diversification, and streamlined management of a portfolio of businesses.

Defination of Holding Company

Section 2(46)

Holding Company‖, in relation to one or more other companies, means a company of which such companies are subsidiary companies;
Source (Company Act, 2013)


According to the Companies Act of 2013, a holding company is defined as a corporation that holds the majority of shares or has significant influence over the management of one or more subsidiary companies. It can be either public or private. The Act mandates holding companies to prepare consolidated financial statements, amalgamating their financial data with that of their subsidiaries. This requirement ensures transparency and offers stakeholders a holistic understanding of the financial health and performance of the entire corporate group, facilitating informed decision-making and accountability.


  • Neelamalai Agro
  • Vardhman Hold.
  • Kemp & Co.
  • Zuari Industries

Features of Holding Company

There are various features of Holding Company such as Ownership and Control, Diversification and Risk Management, Centralized Management, and many more. They are explained below:

1. Ownership and Control

Holding companies possess controlling ownership stakes in subsidiaries, granting them significant influence over strategic decisions and operations. This ownership structure allows holding companies to consolidate financial results and exercise governance authority, ensuring alignment with Wide corporate objectives while maintaining distinct entity identities within the group.

2. Diversification and Risk Management

Holding companies diversify risk by holding interests in multiple subsidiaries across different industries. This diversification strategy mitigates exposure to sector-specific challenges and economic downturns, enhancing overall stability and flexibility. By spreading investments across varied business sectors, holding companies can cushion against losses in any single area, promoting long-term sustainability.

3. Centralized Management

Although subsidiaries may have their own management teams, major decisions and strategic direction are typically coordinated and overseen at the holding company level. This centralized management approach ensures consistency in governance, operational standards, and resource allocation across the entire corporate group. It facilitates efficient decision-making, promotes synergy among subsidiaries, and fosters alignment with overarching corporate goals.

4. Tax Efficiency and Financial Flexibility

Holding companies leverage various tax strategies and financial structures to optimize tax liabilities across the group. By capitalizing on tax incentives, credits, and deductions, holding companies can enhance profitability and cash flow management.

5. Synergy Creation and Value Maximization

Holding companies harness synergies among subsidiaries to streamline operations, reduce costs, and maximize overall shareholder value. By facilitating collaboration, resource sharing, and best practice adoption across the corporate group, holding companies unlock opportunities for growth, innovation, and market expansion. This proactive approach to synergy creation drives operational efficiency, strengthens competitive positioning, and enhances long-term profitability.

Advantage of Holding Company

  1. Diversification of Investments: Holding companies spread their investments across multiple subsidiaries in different industries, reducing risk exposure to any single sector’s fluctuations or challenges.
  2. Centralized Management: Through centralized control and oversight, holding companies can streamline decision-making processes, ensure consistent strategic direction, and maximize operational efficiency across their subsidiaries.
  3. Tax Efficiency: Holding companies often benefit from tax advantages by leveraging various tax strategies and structures, resulting in reduced tax liabilities and enhanced profitability for the group as a whole.
  4. Risk Diversification: The separation of subsidiaries as distinct legal entities shields the holding company’s assets from the liabilities of individual subsidiaries, providing a layer of protection against financial risks and legal liabilities.
  5. Synergy Creation: Holding companies facilitate collaboration and resource sharing among subsidiaries, leading to synergies in operations, marketing, research, and development. This fosters innovation, enhances competitiveness, and drives overall growth and profitability for the entire corporate group.

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What is Subsidiary Company

What is Subsidiary Company?

A subsidiary company is a business entity that is controlled by another, usually larger, company referred to as the parent or holding company. The parent company typically owns a majority of the subsidiary’s shares, granting it significant influence over the subsidiary’s operations and decision-making processes. Subsidiaries operate as separate legal entities, distinct from their parent companies, allowing for independent management and financial reporting. They are often established to diversify the parent company’s business interests, enter new markets, or manage specific aspects of the parent company’s operations. Subsidiaries may engage in various activities, including manufacturing, marketing, sales, or research and development. From a legal standpoint, subsidiaries are liable for their own debts and obligations, providing a degree of financial protection to the parent company. This structure facilitates risk management and enables the parent company to expand its reach while maintaining operational flexibility and control.

Definition of Subsidiary Company

Section – 2(87)

“subsidiary company” or “subsidiary”, in relation to any other company (that is to say the holding company), means a company in which the holding company— (i) controls the composition of the Board of Directors; or (ii) exercises or controls more than one-half of the total share capital either at its own or together with one or more of its subsidiary companies: Provided that such class or classes of holding companies as may be prescribed shall not have layers of subsidiaries beyond such numbers as may be prescribed.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause,— (a) a company shall be deemed to be a subsidiary company of the holding company even if the control referred to in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii) is of another subsidiary company of the holding company; (b) the composition of a company‘s Board of Directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another company if that other company by exercise of some power exercisable by it at its discretion can appoint or remove all or a majority of the directors; (c) the expression ―company‖ includes any body corporate; (d) ―layer‖ in relation to a holding company means its subsidiary or subsidiaries;  
( Source: Company Act, 2013 )


According to the Companies Act of 2013, a subsidiary company is defined as a company in which the holding company controls the composition of the Board of Directors, or exercises control over more than half of the total voting power, or holds more than half of the equity share capital. In simpler terms, a subsidiary is a company that is controlled by another company, known as the parent company. This control typically involves ownership of more than 50% of the subsidiary’s shares, allowing the parent company to influence strategic decisions and operations. Subsidiaries operate as separate legal entities, conducting business independently while remaining under the overall control and supervision of the parent company. The concept of subsidiary companies plays a crucial role in corporate structures, facilitating diversification, risk management, and expansion strategies for larger corporations.

Example of a Subsidiary Company

  • Sheba Properties Ltd.   
  • Concorde Motors (India) Ltd.   
  • TML Drivelines Ltd.   
  • PT Tata Motors Indonesia   
  • TAL Manufacturing Solutions Ltd.   
  • Tata Motors Insurance Broking and Advisory Services Ltd.  
  • Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Co. Ltd.  
  • Tata Motors European Technical Centre Plc.
  • Tata Technologies Ltd.

Features of Subsidiary Company

Legal Autonomy: A subsidiary company operates as a legally independent entity from its parent company, enjoying distinct rights and responsibilities under the law.

Ownership Structure: The parent company typically holds a controlling interest in the subsidiary, exerting influence over its management and strategic decisions.

Financial Independence: Subsidiaries maintain separate financial records, ensuring transparency and accountability in financial reporting and management.

Risk Mitigation: Subsidiaries offer a buffer against risks, as losses or liabilities incurred by the subsidiary generally do not impact the financial stability of the parent company.

Market Diversification: Subsidiaries facilitate market expansion by catering to different geographic regions or niche markets, diversifying the parent company’s revenue streams and reducing dependency on a single market.

Advantages of Subsidiary Company

Risk Isolation: Subsidiary companies provide a shield against risks, as any financial or legal issues typically remain contained within the subsidiary, safeguarding the parent company’s assets and reputation.

Local Expertise: Subsidiaries leverage local knowledge and cultural understanding, enabling effective market penetration and adaptation to specific customer needs and preferences.

Operational Flexibility: Subsidiaries have autonomy in day-to-day operations, allowing them to respond swiftly to local market dynamics and opportunities without hindrance from the parent company’s bureaucracy.

Tax Optimization: Subsidiaries may benefit from tax incentives or favorable tax regimes in their operating jurisdictions, optimizing the overall tax burden for the parent company group.

Strategic Expansion: Subsidiaries facilitate strategic expansion into new markets or industries, diversifying the parent company’s business portfolio and enhancing long-term growth prospects while minimizing risk exposure.

Disadvantages of Subsidiary Company

Complex Governance: Managing multiple subsidiaries adds complexity to corporate governance, requiring significant resources and oversight to ensure compliance and coordination.

Financial Issue: Financial troubles or legal issues in one subsidiary can potentially spread to the parent company, affecting its reputation and financial stability.

Communication Challenges: Maintaining effective communication and alignment of goals across diverse subsidiaries can be challenging, leading to misinterpretation or conflicting strategies.

Resource Drain: Establishing and operating subsidiaries entails substantial financial investment and managerial effort, diverting resources away from core operations or other strategic initiatives.

Regulatory Compliance: Each subsidiary must comply with local regulations and legal requirements, leading to increased administrative burden and potential risks of non-compliance penalties.

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what is company

what is company

A company is essentially a legal entity created by a collective of individuals or entities with the primary aim of engaging in commercial activities. It acts as a platform for conducting business operations, attracting investment, and efficiently managing resources. In India, the Company Act of 2013 defines a company as an association formed by individuals for lawful business pursuits, possessing its own legal identity, perpetual existence, and limited liability.

A key characteristic of a company lies in its distinct legal persona, distinguishing it as a separate entity from its shareholders. This distinction shields shareholders’ personal assets from the company’s liabilities, confining their financial exposure to the extent of their investment in the company’s shares. This concept of limited liability serves as a catalyst for investment and entrepreneurial endeavors by mitigating risks associated with business ventures.

Moreover, the Company Act of 2013 comprehensively regulates the establishment, management, and dissolution of companies, ensuring transparency, accountability, and safeguarding stakeholders’ interests. It categorizes companies into various types such as private, public, and One Person Companies (OPCs), each subject to specific regulations and compliance standards. These regulations encompass areas like corporate governance, financial reporting, auditing, and investor protection, with the aim of fostering corporate growth while upholding shareholder and stakeholder rights.

Furthermore, the Company Act describe the rights, duties, and obligations of directors, officers, and shareholders, thereby promoting corporate governance and ethical behavior. It establishes mechanisms for dispute resolution, contract enforcement, and addressing corporate misconduct, fostering trust and reliability within the corporate landscape.

In summary, a company, as per the provisions of the Company Act 2013, is an organized entity dedicated to commercial endeavors, possessing a distinct legal identity and offering limited liability to its members. Governed by statutory regulations, it plays a pivotal role in driving economic growth, encouraging innovation, and generating wealth, all while adhering to legal and ethical standards essential for sustainable business operations.

Definition as Per Company Act 2013

Section 2(20)
company means a company incorporated under this Act or under any previous company law – Source: Company Act 2013


As per the Companies Act 2013, a company is a legally recognized entity formed by shareholders to conduct business activities. It operates as a distinct entity from its shareholders, capable of owning assets, incurring liabilities, and engaging in legal proceedings in its own name. The Act classifies companies into various types, such as private, public, and one-person companies, each governed by specific regulatory provisions. Overall, a company, under the Act, embodies a structured business entity with defined legal rights and responsibilities.

Example of Company

  • Starbucks
  • Apple
  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • Tata
  • Reliance Industries
  • SBI
  • PNB
  • HDFC Bank
  • Infosys

Features of Company

Legal Entity: A company is a legally recognized entity, separate from its owners, with the capacity to own assets, assume liabilities, and engage in contracts under its own name, providing a safeguard for shareholders’ personal assets.

Limited Liability: Shareholders’ liability is typically restricted to their investment in the company, shielding their personal assets from the company’s debts and obligations beyond their initial contribution.

Perpetual Succession: A company benefits from perpetual succession, ensuring its continuity despite changes in ownership or management, thereby maintaining stability in its operations and commitments.

Separate Management: The management of a company operates independently from its ownership, with a clear distinction between shareholders, responsible for oversight, and managers, entrusted with day-to-day operations and decision-making.

Transferability of Ownership: Shares of a company are generally freely transferable, facilitating the exchange of ownership interests without disrupting the company’s functions or legal status.

Common Seal: Often, a company possesses a common seal, serving as a formal stamp to authenticate documents, contracts, and agreements, symbolizing the company’s authority and commitment in legal matters.

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