what is company

what is company

A company is essentially a legal entity created by a collective of individuals or entities with the primary aim of engaging in commercial activities. It acts as a platform for conducting business operations, attracting investment, and efficiently managing resources. In India, the Company Act of 2013 defines a company as an association formed by individuals for lawful business pursuits, possessing its own legal identity, perpetual existence, and limited liability.

A key characteristic of a company lies in its distinct legal persona, distinguishing it as a separate entity from its shareholders. This distinction shields shareholders’ personal assets from the company’s liabilities, confining their financial exposure to the extent of their investment in the company’s shares. This concept of limited liability serves as a catalyst for investment and entrepreneurial endeavors by mitigating risks associated with business ventures.

Moreover, the Company Act of 2013 comprehensively regulates the establishment, management, and dissolution of companies, ensuring transparency, accountability, and safeguarding stakeholders’ interests. It categorizes companies into various types such as private, public, and One Person Companies (OPCs), each subject to specific regulations and compliance standards. These regulations encompass areas like corporate governance, financial reporting, auditing, and investor protection, with the aim of fostering corporate growth while upholding shareholder and stakeholder rights.

Furthermore, the Company Act describe the rights, duties, and obligations of directors, officers, and shareholders, thereby promoting corporate governance and ethical behavior. It establishes mechanisms for dispute resolution, contract enforcement, and addressing corporate misconduct, fostering trust and reliability within the corporate landscape.

In summary, a company, as per the provisions of the Company Act 2013, is an organized entity dedicated to commercial endeavors, possessing a distinct legal identity and offering limited liability to its members. Governed by statutory regulations, it plays a pivotal role in driving economic growth, encouraging innovation, and generating wealth, all while adhering to legal and ethical standards essential for sustainable business operations.

Definition as Per Company Act 2013

Section 2(20)
company means a company incorporated under this Act or under any previous company law – Source: Company Act 2013


As per the Companies Act 2013, a company is a legally recognized entity formed by shareholders to conduct business activities. It operates as a distinct entity from its shareholders, capable of owning assets, incurring liabilities, and engaging in legal proceedings in its own name. The Act classifies companies into various types, such as private, public, and one-person companies, each governed by specific regulatory provisions. Overall, a company, under the Act, embodies a structured business entity with defined legal rights and responsibilities.

Example of Company

  • Starbucks
  • Apple
  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • Tata
  • Reliance Industries
  • SBI
  • PNB
  • HDFC Bank
  • Infosys

Features of Company

Legal Entity: A company is a legally recognized entity, separate from its owners, with the capacity to own assets, assume liabilities, and engage in contracts under its own name, providing a safeguard for shareholders’ personal assets.

Limited Liability: Shareholders’ liability is typically restricted to their investment in the company, shielding their personal assets from the company’s debts and obligations beyond their initial contribution.

Perpetual Succession: A company benefits from perpetual succession, ensuring its continuity despite changes in ownership or management, thereby maintaining stability in its operations and commitments.

Separate Management: The management of a company operates independently from its ownership, with a clear distinction between shareholders, responsible for oversight, and managers, entrusted with day-to-day operations and decision-making.

Transferability of Ownership: Shares of a company are generally freely transferable, facilitating the exchange of ownership interests without disrupting the company’s functions or legal status.

Common Seal: Often, a company possesses a common seal, serving as a formal stamp to authenticate documents, contracts, and agreements, symbolizing the company’s authority and commitment in legal matters.

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